Title of DocumentAbstractDownload
Quality and dissemination of information from a drought early warning system in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Agro-pastoral choice of coping strategies and response to drought in the semi-arid areas of Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Effect of drought early warning system on household food security in Karamoja subregion, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Comparison of extreme weather events and streamflow from drought indices and a hydrological model in River Malaba, Eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Dynamics of Land Use/Cover Trends in Kanungu District, South-western Uganda. Abstract  Copy
The Effect of Land use/cover change on Biomass Stock in Dryland Areas of Eastern Uganda. A case study of Olio Sub-county in Soroti District. Abstract  Copy
Piosphere Syndrome and Rangeland Degradation in Karamoja Sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Landuse/Cover Change Trend in Soroti District Eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Rural Households' Fuelwood Demand Determinants In Dryland Areas of Eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Miti Magazine-Rural Households' Fuelwood Demand Determinants In Dryland Areas of Eastern Uganda ‘Mental drought’ afflicts Uganda’s cattle corridor. Abstract  Copy
Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa. Abstract  Copy
Miti Magazine-Rainfall trends in the Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Cost Benefit Analysis: a review of its past present and the future. Abstract  Copy
The effect of climate variability and change on forage availability and productivity in Uganda’s cattle corridor: A case study of Karamoja sub-region. Abstract  Copy
The determinants of fuelwood demand: A case of Olio sub-county eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Proceedings of the 4th international conference on sustainable animal agriculture for developing countries (SAADC2013). Abstract  Copy
Trees and Livelihoods in Karamoja, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Status of Livestock Water Sources in Karamoja Sub-Region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Key messages on the Process and Submissions in response to the sixth Graduate Research Grants Call. Abstract  Copy
Climate change and agriculture nexus in sub-Saharan Africa: the agonizing reality for smallholder farmers. Abstract  Copy
Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Evidence-based opportunities for out-scaling climate-smart agriculture in East Africa. Abstract  Copy
Innovating for Skills Enhancement:The centrality of field attachment programs in Agricultural Sciences in Africa. Abstract  Copy
Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja subregion in north-eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Abundance and diversity of native forage species in pastoral Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Coping with Firewood Scarcity in Soroti District of Eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Role of indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation: A case study of Teso Sub region Eastern Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Youth participation in agriculture in Uganda: determinants and opportunities for rural transformation. Abstract  Copy
Logit Analysis of Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Famine in Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Thesis: ethno veterinary knowledge in pastoral Karamoja, Northern Uganda, By Jeanne Terese Gradé. Abstract  Copy
Camel forage variety in the Karamoja subregion, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Mapping the Potential for Hay Making in Rangelands: A Methodological Proposition. Abstract  Copy
Contribution of Rangelands to Household Food. Basket and Income in a Pastoral Area in Uganda Abstract  Copy
Determinants of household food security in a rangeland area of Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Choice Options to meet Household Food Security in the Cattle Corridor of Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Meteorological drought occurrence and severity in Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Rural Land Use Change during 1986–2002 in Lijiang, China, Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Data. Abstract  Copy
Socio-economic determinants of pastoralists’ choice of camel production in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Abstract  Copy
Tragedy of the Commons and Pastoral Livelihood. Abstract  Copy

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Tragedy of the Commons and Pastoral Livelihood

 

Garret Hardin’s ‘tragedy of the commons’ thesis published in 1968 became a ‘master piece’ upon which environmental and development policies were formulated in the 1970s and 1980s. This review concerns itself with the perspective of the ‘tragedy of the commons’ and how it relates to pastoral livelihood. Case examples to illustrate the discussion are drawn from among the Maasai, Rendile and Gabra of Kenya as well as the Karamojong pastoral group of Uganda. This review has noted that; the theoretical framework provided by Hardin’s work unfortunately mislabeled pastoralists as irrational land use managers as such pastoralists were seen as responsible for overstocking, desertification and insecurity. Following this understanding, global viewpoint in the 1970s and 1980s considered pastoralism as a system that was economically inefficient, ecologically dysfunctional and socially backward; pastoralists were thus a people worthy to be civilized and settled. These perspectives hindered the development of pastoralism as an economic system and a resilient complex system operating in an environment of disequilibrium; this affected the pastoral livelihood. Finally, the review shows that there has been a move to re-examine Hardin’s perspective, especially following the failure of some multi-million dollar United.

Socio-economic determinants of pastoralists’ choice of camel production in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda

 

production is a potential avenue for improved food and income security in dryland areas of East Africa. Despite this potential, there is a dearth of information on the increasing choice of camel production among pastoralists in the region. Camel-owning households were obtained through snowball sampling approach whereas those without camels were obtained randomly in the vicinity of those who had camels. A total of 116 respondents were interviewed in Moroto and Amudat districts of the Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Descriptive statistics and binary probit regression analysis were conducted on the data. Results showed that 45% of the sampled households owned camels with an average camel holding of 17.96 ± 22.12 heads. There were more cows (9.67 ± 12.368) than bulls (3.85 ± 7.149) in the camel herds. Only 8% and 26% of camel herders had access to extension services and financial credit respectively. The binary probit regression model revealed that age of the household head, household size, on- farm income and herd size significantly influenced the decision to undertake camel production in the region. Furthermore, all the household members were engaged in different camel management activities; however, herding was mainly the responsibility of the children (34.9%) and adult males (32.1%). Milking was mainly done by women (33.6%) while disease management was done by adult males (48.7%) and the elderly (22%) in the household. Provision of higher milk quantities (44.3%) and camels being in the lineage (13.6%) were cited as the key motivations for camel rearing. On the other hand, 56% of respondents observed that the initial high cost of camel acquisition was the main limitation to owning camels. This study has shown that decision-making in transitioning to camel production in Karamoja is a result of socio-economic attributes including pastoralists’ perceptions of associated costs and benefits arising from camel production. Therefore, it is vital to strengthen innovative financing mechanisms and traditional systems such as agistments that can support pastoralists willing to acquire camels. There is need for extension services that target camel rearing where women and children are involved given their central role in camel management.

Rural Land Use Change during 1986–2002 in Lijiang, China, Based on Remote Sensing and GIS Data

 

As a local environmental issue with global importance, land use/land cover change (LUCC) has always been one of the key issues in geography and environmental studies with the expansion of regional case studies. While most of LUCC studies in China have focused on urban land use change, meanwhile, compared with the rapid change of urban land use in the coastal areas of eastern China, slow but distinct rural land use changes have also occurred in the mountainous areas of western China since the late 1980s. In this case through a study in Lijiang County of Yunnan Province, with the application of remote sensing data and geographic information system techniques, the process of rural land use change in mountain areas of western China was monitored through extensive statistical analysis of detailed regional data. The results showed significant increases in construction land, paddy field and dry land, and a decrease in dense forest land and waste grassland between 1986 and 2002. The conversions between dense forest land and sparse forest land, grassland, waste grassland and dry land were the primary processes of rural land use change. Sparse forest land had the highest rate of land use change, with glacier or snow-capped land the lowest; while human settlement and rural economic development were found to be the main driving forces of regional difference in the integrated land use change rate among the 24 towns of Lijiang County. Quantified through landscape metrics, spatial patterns of rural land use change were represented as an increase in landscape diversity and landscape fragmentation, and the regularization of patch shapes, suggesting the intensification of human disturbances and degradation of ecological quality in the rural landscape.

Meteorological drought occurrence and severity in Uganda.

 

Precipitation, a very important weather parameter is often variable, resulting into droughts and floods as extreme weather events in Uganda. These are causing great economic impact especially on agriculture and water resources. Meteorological drought is a creeping hazard; it develops slowly and has a prolonged existence leading to the development of other drought types such as agricultural and hydrological drought. Despite meteorological drought being a major concern in Uganda, drought occurrence and severity is not been well documented. This study determined the occurrence of meteorological drought and assessed the magnitude of its severity in Uganda. The rainfall deciles method was used to analyse monthly rainfall data for 40 years (1943-1982) in the 16 climatological homogenous zones of Uganda. Seven of the 16 climatological zones were identified as drought prone (CE, CW, E, G, H, ME, MW). The annual and monthly rainfall ranges for identification of drought were 274–1157 mm and 10–94 mm respectively. The occurrence of drought oscillated within 10-15 drought events per 5-years over the assessed period while the average drought event interval in any drought prone zone was 1-6 years with an average dominancy in occurrence of 1-year. The event interval for drought to occur concurrently in all the drought prone zones in a year was 12½ years. Severe drought was dominant in zone H with 22.5% occurrences during the December-February season whose drought rainfall range was ≤ 10 mm. The drought prone zones experience a moderate type of drought with highest occurrences (62.5%) in zone MW during the September-November season with a drought rainfall range of > 114 < 150 mm. Zone CW was the only zone that recorded drought with ‘extreme’ drought with 2.5% occurrences. It is therefore imperative that drought management is approached from a prioritization perspective focusing on the hotspot locations experiencing high occurrence of different drought types. Drought managers and decision makers consider using annual and monthly drought rainfall ranges of all the drought prone climatological zones for drought monitoring on an annual and seasonal basis in Uganda.

Choice Options to meet Household Food Security in the Cattle Corridor of Uganda

 

This study identified the major options adopted by households in the rangelands of Uganda to meet their food needs, the factors that affect their choices and barriers to making use of various choices. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered among 180 pastoral households in selected rangeland area of Uganda. The options identified include restocking animals, changing planting dates, soil conservation, harnessing new technologies, planting trees and buying food stuffs. Analysis of results from the multinomial logistic model indicated that age, level of education, size of household, years in current location, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership, access to extension services and climate and weather information were key determinants of farmers’ choice of options to realize household food security. The major perceived barriers to choice options were lack of information on alternative options, poor technologies, climate variability, inadequate land, high food prices and low income. The analysis of choice of options to meet household food security suggests a number of different policy options such as strengthening production facilitation options available to pastoral communities including among others access to affordable credit, investing in yield-increasing technologies, introduction of livestock species that are better suited to drier conditions, raising awareness on climate related variations, creating opportunities for off-farm employment, encouraging pastoralists to grow more crops, and investing in irrigation.

Determinants of household food security in a rangeland area of Uganda.

 

Pastoralists and agro-pastoralists operating in the rangelands of Uganda remain food insecure. This study determined the status of household food security in Nakaseke district, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in February 2016 among 180 randomly selected households. Two measures of food security; a Self-Reported Food Security Status Index (RFSI) and a multi-dimensional index generated through the Principal Component Analysis (PCAI) were used. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions were performed to identify important determinants. Results showed that 46.8% of the households were food insecure. The perceived peak period for food shortage was between July and August. Most households (95.1%) met their food needs through off-farm sources. Age of household head, educational level of household head, off-farm/ non-farm income, cross-breeding and livestock ownership positively influenced household food security (p≤0.05). The sex of household head, household size (AE) and absence of credit negatively influenced household food security (p≤0.05). It is proposed that a suit of actions including income diversification through participation in off-farm activities, increasing access to education, encouraging crop-livestock integration and improving livestock productivity be used to improve household food security in this rangeland area of Uganda.

 Contribution of Rangelands to Household Food Basket and Income in a Pastoral Area in Uganda

 

Rangelands are important ecosystems as they offer livelihood options and food security to many people in Uganda. There is barely any study that has analyzed the intricate relationship between household food basket, income and rangelands in Uganda. This study determined the contribution of rangelands to household food basket and income in Nakaseke district, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was conducted among 180 randomly selected households. The survey was aimed at determining the relationship between rangeland resources, food basket and income. Results showed that rangeland resources contribute significantly (p<0.05) to household food basket and income during both dry and wet seasons. Water, grass and shrubs were the most important rangeland resources in the area. On average, a household expended US$ 4.29 and US$ 4.04 daily on milk during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This accounted for the largest household expenditure on household food items. The household food basket is constituted by milk, meat from cattle and goats, posho, cassava, beans, vegetables, fruits, honey, sugar and oil. Four months; January-March and July-August were observed to have the lowest resource availability during the year. On average, households earned US$ 20.07 per month translating to US$ 240.84 annually. This average is lower than the US$571.9 national estimated per capita income. The average monthly income of the households during the wet and dry seasons was US$ 22.4 and US$ 17.7 respectively. Seasonal differences in income were however non-significant (p>0.05). The logistic regression results showed that size of land owned significantly influences cattle numbers and income at household level but does not influence the number and type of crops cultivated and available food reserves. Seventy three percent (73%) of the households attributed their livestock herd sizes to the presence of vast expanses of the rangeland. These findings show that rangelands are the most important contributors to household food basket as well as household assets such as livestock that have influence on household food security.

Mapping the Potential for Hay Making in Rangelands: A Methodological Proposition.

This study presents a methodology that may guide livestock managers, extension workers, and farmers in 1) determining the best period for hay harvest corresponding to peak productivity of the vegetation in rangelands, 2) estimating the amount of hay available (biomass) at peak productivity, using commonly available satellite imagery, and 3) highlighting the best areas for hay production based on grassland availability. It is recommended that this methodology (monitoring framework for hay mapping) be scaled up to regional scales so we are able tomap biomass areas and hence potential hay making areas over wider areas.

Camel forage variety in the Karamoja subregion, Uganda.

 

Camels have the potential to increase the resilience of pastoral communities to the impacts of climate variability and change. Despite this potential, there is limited documentation of the camel forage species, their availability and distribution. The study was conducted in Karamoja sub-region in Uganda and involved assessment of vegetation with intent to characterize the range of forage species available for camels in the region. The camel grazing area was stratified based on land cover types, namely woodland, bushland, grassland and farmland using the Amudat and Moroto district vegetation maps. Vegetation plots measuring 20 m× 20 m were mapped out among the land cover types where species identification was undertaken. In addition, a cross-sectional survey involving 52 camel herders was used to document the camel forage species preferences. Shannon and Simpson diversity indices as well as the Jaccard coefficient were used to measure the species richness, relative abundance, diversity and plant community similarities among the land cover types. Results showed high species richness and diversities in the bushland and woodland land cover types. Plant communities in the woodland and bushlands were found to be more similar. A wide range of plant species were reported to be preferred by camels in the study area, that is 63 in Amudat and 50 in Moroto districts. respectively, with Balanites, Euphorbia and several Acacia species taking precedence. Therefore, given the diversity of camel forage species, this study recommends increased adoption of camel rearing in Karamoja sub-region. Further, the camel owners are encouraged to undertake conservation management and deliberate production of preferred forage species such as Euphorbia tirucalli that also exhibit ease of propagation and adaptability to the sub-region. This browse could support the milking herd and the camel calves that remain at the homesteads. A toxicological analysis of E. tirucalli is however recommended, given irritant latex discharge, prior to taking this recommendation to scale.

Thesis: ethno veterinary knowledge in pastoral Karamoja, Northern Uganda, By Jeanne Terese Gradé

 

The present study presents the cataloguing and documenting of indigenous veterinary knowledge of Karamojong pastoralists as a component to an ongoing non-governmental organisation-managed community animal health and development program. The region of Karamoja, 28,000 km2, is located in northeastern Uganda, in the Great Lakes Region of East Africa. The pastoralists of south and central Karamoja have a lot of indigenous knowledge and a variety of plants to choose from to satisfy their subsistence requirements and to cater to their livestock healthcare needs. This study recorded EVK information on 209 plant species, distributed over 116 genera and 54 families. There were 130 separate EVK uses listed. The most common indication was against anaplasmosis, for which 29 species were reported. Many of the plants in this inventory were never documented for animals before at all and/or for the specific uses recorded here.

Logit Analysis of Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Famine in Uganda.

 

Socioeconomic factors affecting food security in Uganda were studied in 2004-2005, and secondary agricultural production data collected by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics used to determine famine-prone households. The relationship between predictor and outcome variables was determined using a logistic regression model. Famine risk at different strata of predictive variables was analyzed using bivariate analysis. The model was fitted with 13 factors, with those significantly related to food insecurity found to be distance to gardens, household size, amount of labor input, livestock number, distance to main roads, household income, household head age, and agricultural shock. Further study using a predictive model combining environmental stress and socioeconomic factors would improve food insecurity prediction.

YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE IN UGANDA: DETERMINANTS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL TRANSFORMATION

 

Agriculture is the backbone of Uganda’s economy, employing over 70 per cent of the population in the country. Ugandan youth are disproportionately affected by high unemployment rates, at10 per cent for males and 22 per cent for females (UBOS 2004). This study, therefore, investigated the determinants of youth participation in agriculture and whether they vary between the regions and agro-ecological zones of Uganda. Survey data from the Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS) 2005/06 was used to identify the key determinants of youth participation in agriculture while logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of the various socio-economic and demographic characteristics on youth participation in agriculture. The results show that the demographic (marital status, sex and age) and socio-economic (residence, poverty status, availability of agricultural land, major source of earnings, years of education, presence of input markets, presence of output markets, vocational training, residence, region and agro-ecological zone) characteristics influence youth participation in agriculture. Overall, being from an urban rather than a rural area reduced the chances of a youth participating in agriculture while being from a poor household increased the chances of participation. The data also showed that older youth had higher chances of participation. In addition, being married and or/cohabiting, monogamous or polygamous as opposed to being single, widowed and divorced taken together increased the chances of a youth participating in agriculture and the gender of the youth equally had an influence on participation. The model results further reveal that being male rather than female increased one’s chances of participation. There were regional and agro-ecological zone-level differences regarding youth participation in agriculture. Agro-ecological zone models revealed that rural youth who originated from households whose major source of earnings were derived from agriculture were more likely to participate in the sector. We recommend that efforts to boost youth participation in agriculture should target specific regions and agro-zones to maximise comparative advantages.

Role of indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation: A case study of Teso Sub region Eastern Uganda.

 

This study examined the role of indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation in Uganda with specific focus on the Teso sub-region. Specifically, the study identified knowledge practices used in climate change adaption, documented indigenous knowledge in climate observation, and identified constraints to indigenous knowledge use for climate change adaptation. Farmers still observe the intensity of East-West blowing winds, color of the clouds in the East, and plant traits for rainfall prediction. Low mastery of indigenous knowledge practices by younger community members and persistently changing weather patterns have challenged community reliance on indigenous knowledge for climate change adaptation. There is need to strengthen dissemination of indigenous knowledge and integrate modern approaches that strengthen indigenous knowledge in climate change adaptation and resilience.

Coping with Firewood Scarcity in Soroti District of Eastern Uganda.

 

This study investigated how rural households cope with firewood scarcity in dryland areas of Eastern Uganda. A household survey was conducted in December 2008 to January 2009, where 490 respondents were randomly interviewed. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also held with community elders and women. Responses were analyzed both descriptively and qualitatively. Findings indicated that 99% of the households used firewood for cooking with a per capita consumption of 542.32 Kilograms. Commonly used tree species included Combretnum molle (42.7%) and Acacia polyacantha willd (18.2%). Over 78% of the households have a preference for acacia tree species for firewood. In particular, Acacia polyacan-tha willd (60.3%), Acacia hockii (16.9%) and Combretum collinum (9.6%) were the most preferred tree species. The scarcity of firewood supply was eminent from the average distance (2 ± 7 Km) traveled by collectors in search of them. Firewood collectors spent 1 to 10 hours with an average of 3 hours weekly in firewood collection activities. This resulted in per annum estimated opportunity cost of Shillings 432,000 (US 232 dollars) for those who collected on weekly basis and Shillings 1,080,000 shillings (US 580 dol-lars) for those who collected on daily basis. The frequency of collection decreased as distance increased among 89% of the households. Minority of households (1%) have resorted to deliberately planting trees on their own farms to ease problems of firewood shortage, and to modification of biomass stove so as to use less firewood. Households in their endeavour to circumvent the problem of continued scarcity have resorted to poorer quality tree/bushes for firewood (71.2%), alongside other coping strategies such as cooking meals once a day, avoidance of cooking some food types (70%), and using crop residues as fuel source (60%). There is a need for scaling-up on-farm tree planting as well as the use of improved biomass cook stoves in the region.

ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY OF NATIVE FORAGE SPECIES IN PASTORAL KARAMOJA SUB-REGION, UGANDA

 

Low input pastoral production systems rely exclusively on natural forage resources in space and time. Information on the abundance and diversity of such pastures is vital in improving livestock production and managing the biodiversity of grazing landscapes. This study documented grass and browse forage species utilised in pastoral Karamoja, and determined their relative abundance by district, season and grazing land cover. Up to 65 grass and 110 browse species were utilised in Karamoja Sub-region. In-situ assessments revealed that Chloris, Hyparrhennia, Sporobolus, Pennisetum, Aristida, Cynodon, Eragrostis, Setaria, and Panicum grasses had higher relative abundance. Triumfetta annua, Indigofera erecta, Acacia drepanolobium, Grewia holstii, Acacia kirkii, Acacia mellifera, Acacia tortolis, Maerua pseudopetalosa, Acacia oerfota, and Ocimmum canum woody species were the most abundant. From the community assessment, Hyparrhennia, Chloris, Panicum, Bracharia, Eragrostis, and Setaria grasses and Acacia mellifera, Cadaba farinose, Acacia oerfota, Acacia drepanolobium, Caparis tormentosa, Maerua pseudopetalosa and Hisbiscus micrantha woody plants were identified as the most abundant among the grazing land cover. The grass and browse forage species varied by season, location, and land cover type. The study also found detailed local knowledge of grass and browse forage species in the community. This study has shown the existence of high diversity among grass and browse forage species with differentiated relative abundance across space and time. This, and the detailed communal cultural knowledge, form a basis for the improvement of livestock production as well as biodiversity conservation in Karamoja sub-region.

Assessing the spatio-temporal climate variability in semi-arid Karamoja subregion in north-eastern Uganda.

 

Semi-arid areas show climatic variability on a spatio-temporal scale. There are few studies on the long-term trends and intensity of this variability from East Africa. We used National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration re-analysis climate data (1979–2009) in this study. Rainfall exhibited a non-significant long-term trend. The climate of the area is variable (coefficient of variation-CV >35.0%) with spatio-temporal oddities in rainfall and temperature. A rise in minimum (0.9 °C), maximum (1.6 °C) and mean (1.3 °C) temperature occurred between 1979 and 2009. There were more months with climate variability indices below the threshold (<1.0) from 1979 to 1994 than between 1995 and 2009, with wetness intensity increasingly common after 2000, leading to the observed reduction in the recurrence of multi-year drought events. More extreme wet events (rainfall variability index >2.6) were experienced between 2004 and 2009 than between 1984 and 2003. We consider that the use of spatio-temporal climatic information for timely adjustment to extreme climate variability events is essential in semi-arid areas.

Innovating for Skills Enhancement: The centrality of field attachment programs in Agricultural Sciences in Africa.

 

Debate on the centrality of field attachments/work experience to education has gained traction in the recent past, with consensus emerging on the necessity for such experience in order to progress along one’s chosen career path (Essential Skills Ontario 2014; Hillage & Pollard 1998; Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman & Johnson 2005). Thus, work-based learning and apprenticeship–dual training systems now play an important role in facilitating employment and increasing economic competitiveness (Cornford & Gunn 1998; Simmons 2009). Traditionally, African universities, in particular departments of agriculture, embedded within their courses field attachment–apprenticeship programs, but these were generally orientated towards fulfilling the curriculum mandate of undergraduate training (Mugisha & Nkwasibwe 2014), while graduate training in most African universities rarely included such apprenticeships. Yet, research dissertations on graduate training programs continued to pile up on university shelves (Goolam 2014; Sawyerr 2004).  The lack of connection between graduate training and research with communities meant that farmers from whom the information was generated lost on three grounds. First, they became simply providers of information to support attainment of higher degrees. Second, their production systems barely improved as there was hardly a functional relationship between farmers, graduate fellows and their knowledge, or between farmer activity and related curricular programs. Third, farmers were denied the valuable partnerships that should come through farm-level research. Despite universities trying to reach farmers, they continued operating within their silos and ivory towers. The university academics were becoming ‘a cyclic burden’, often seeking information from the communities without providing feedback

Evidence-based opportunities for out-scaling climate-smart agriculture in East Africa.

 

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is being widely promoted as a solution for food insecurity and climate change adaptation in food systems of sub-Saharan Africa, while simultaneously reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. Governments throughout Africa are writing policies and programs to promote CSA practices despite uncertainty about the ability for practices to meet the triple CSA objectives of CSA. We conducted a systematic review of 175 peer-reviewed and grey literature studies, to gauge the impact of over seventy potential CSA practices on CSA outcomes in Tanzania and Uganda. Using a total of 6,342 observations, we found that practice impacts were highly context (i.e. farming system and location) specific. Nevertheless, practice effect across CSA outcomes generally agreed in direction. While our results suggest that CSA is indeed possible, lack of mitigation data precludes a more conclusive statement. Furthermore, the inclusion of potential adoption rates changes the potential of CSA practices to achieve benefits at scale. Given the uncertainty and variable impacts of practices across regions and outcomes, it is critical for decision makers to prioritize practices based on their desired outcomes and local context.

Piospheric influence on forage species composition and abundance in semi-arid Karamoja sub-region, Uganda

 

Piospheres in semi-arid areas are gradients of animal impacts around watering holes. Few studies have examined the impact dynamics of herbaceous and woody species composition and abundance in relation to piospheres in East Africa. In this study, we identified the trend in piosphere development, assessed piosphere use and change indicators, and identified herbaceous and woody plant structure in relation to piospheres in the Karamoja sub-region, Uganda. Results revealed that piosphere development has been reactionary to drought and/or insecurity events and increased rapidly in the last decade. A diversity of herbaceous and woody plants exists around the piospheres. Use and change indicators revealed high trampling and grazing intensity, high presence of erosion signs and low litter cover. Gradient distance had both positive and negative effects on trampling intensity, percent exposure and plant height, respectively. A negative and positive effect of gradient distance was also observed on different herbaceous and woody forage species leading to the identification of both increaser and decreaser species around the piospheres. Therefore, as concentrated use of the piospheres continues unabated, an outward ripple effect leading to loss and/or increase of undesirable herbaceous and woody species will be felt. This will have an impact on the composition and abundance dynamics of desirable forage species in the sub-region.

Drivers of forage availability: An integration of remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.

 

Low-input pastoral production systems provide up to 90 % of livestock and livestock products consumed in Uganda.
However, pastoral communities are increasingly faced with the challenge of meeting their livestock needs in terms of
forage, a situation exacerbated by climatic variability. The study identified the patterns of forage availability and quality, compared perceived patterns of forage availability with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and determined drivers of forage availability in Karamoja sub-region. Over a 12-month period, 75.3 % of the respondents perceived forage to be sufficiently available with differentiated availability in the livelihood zones and between livestock species (goats, sheep, cattle, donkeys and camels). A similar pattern was observed with regard to perceived forage quality. A significant relationship between perceived forage availability and long-term mean monthly NDVI dynamics was observed. A lag time of 2.9 months existed between rainfall and vegetation response peak periods. Mean monthly rainfall pattern was found to be correlated with perceived forage availability. The length of residence by a livestock keeper, frequency of grazing, number of kraals, presence of governing rules, and presence of conflicts and knowledge of pasture locations, restricted movement and ease of access to grazing areas significantly (P ≤ 0.05) were the major perceived drivers of forage availability. Therefore, we find that pastoral communities in Karamoja have detailed traditional ecological knowledge of forage status and their perceived determinants. There is a need to conduct nutritional analysis of key forage species available in the different livelihood zones. Finally, there is a need to constantly monitor socio-political conditions that have potential of creating ‘artificial’ forage shortage in the sub-region.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURE NEXUS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: THE AGONIZING REALITY FOR SMALLHOLDER FARMERS

 

Climate change is one of the potent challenges facing smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa in the recent past owing to the pattern and magnitude with which it presents the extreme events such as floods and drought. This review finds a general con­sensus that climate change is already happening in the region and the projections in the early, mid and end century all point to a much warmer future with highly variable rainfall across the region. These patterns in climate parameters is expected to trigger a negative trend in agricultural production for most food and cash crops in SSA. However, a few locations particularly the high­land locations over eastern Africa will be expected to become more suitable for the production of some cereals such as maize leading to increased production. Overall, at present and in the future unless strategic interventions are judiciously implemented smallholder farmers in SSA produce below the optimal levels with considerable yield gaps in nearly all the cereals, legumes and tubers grown. Efforts to unlock the potential of smallholder farmers under the current and projected climate change situation ought to focus on strategic and systemic implementation of; options that yield multiple benefits such as climate smart agriculture, investing in capacity building at both technical and farmer level, creating multiple opportunities for investment capital including availing smallholders with credit as well as mobilizing private financing. Further, investing at the development of functional early and early warning systems, investing in agricultural value chains through a strategic focus on agribusinesses and gaining and strengthening political commitment through a focus on policy and governance in agricultural frameworks and processes. Finally, a no-one fit for all paradigm ought to be upheld at all time while dealing with smallholder farmers in SSA owing to the dynamic and complex farming systems under which they operate.

Key messages on the Process and Submissions in response to the sixth Graduate Research Grants Call

 

The Graduate Research Grants (GRG) Call provides opportunity to member universities of the Regional Universities Network for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM); a Network of 46 Member Universities in sub-Saharan Africa to develop and submit applications for research and training. The process is based on a competitive granting scheme with the GRG as one of the categories of the scheme. Under the GRG a grant is competitively awarded to a principal investigator (an individual senior lecturer at a member university) to support agricultural research action research and the training of at least two masters students. RUFORUM in the last decade has supported capacity building in agricultural sciences through a Competitive Grants Scheme (CGS). The Graduate Research Grant (GRG) scheme now in the 6th round of call is one of the four grant awards that are administered by RUFORUM. In this 6th call, the RUFORUM Information Management System (RIMS) was utilized during the submission and review of applications marking the commencement of a virtual granting process at the RUFORUM Secretariat. A total of 108 proposals were received, 93% of which complied with the application guidelines and 21% were led by female principal investigators; this however is lower than the RUFORUM 42% target for female representation. Thirty percent of the proposals focused on crop production, 25% on cross-cutting thematic area (agri-business management, rural development and socioeconomics, food science and nutrition, climate change and natural resources management as well as agricultural extension, communications and information systems) and 20% addressed animal production. Disaggregated submissions by commodity focus showed that 26.4% and 10.4% of the proposals focused on cereals, fisheries and aquaculture and ruminants respectively. While there remains a high focus on crop production there is an observed increase in submissions on animal production and cross-cutting themes. The analysis also reveals limited attention to some critical areas, especially farm management and natural resources; land, soil and water and, agroforestry and it is imperative that the Secretariat and member Universities undertake strategic interventions in these areas. Further the Secretariat and member universities need to undertake strategic interventions to uplift the participation of women scientists in the competitive grants in the network. The analysis of this process and from the submissions in response to the 6th RUFORUM GRG Call will guide future interventions in terms of solicitations for research proposals intended to focus on agricultural research and training for postgraduate students in Africa.

 Status of Livestock Water Sources in Karamoja Sub-Region, Uganda

 

Drylands cover 44% of Uganda and hold up to 90% of the country’s livestock herd. The drylands of Uganda interface with climatic variability; in particular drought and flood events often produce debilitating effects. Karamoja sub-region is an important livestock dependent community that accounts for 20% of the national livestock herd. The Karamojong like other pastoral and agro-pastoral communities are dependent on natural ecosystem services for the sustenance of their livestock populations. Several water sources and systems have been developed in Karamoja in order to curb frequent water challenges. This paper provides key findings on the status of water sources for livestock watering in Karamoja, particularly in the districts of Napak, Moroto and Kotido. The study provides the spatial distribution of water sources and the potential movements of pastoralists during periods of water availability and in periods of water stress. It further presents the management challenges and the key lessons learned. The study was executed through a rapid mapping exercise using hand held global positioning systems, interviews and focus group discussions. Dam periphery health assessment was conducted using cross based transect walks. The study established a disproportionate location of the water dams for livestock watering with a high concentration of dams in particular areas such as Rupa sub-county in Moroto District, leading to high grazing intensity and eventually rangeland degradation. Meanwhile, Nakapiripirit district is the most water stressed district in regard to water for livestock with only four dams in the district. Of the four dams, two are located in Namalu sub-county making the larger part of the district unserved. Kobebe and Nakicumet dams in Moroto and Napak districts respectively are the most important watering sources in the event of an extended dry period. These two dams similarly have high potentials of providing multiple benefits to the communities by providing water for irrigation and fisheries. Water quality in dams is generally poor due to high sediment loading and siltation orchestrated by direct watering, high grazing intensity around the dam periphery, cutting of trees and soil erosion. At the same time, management practices are poor and if available are inadequate. All dams are highly exposed to strong prevailing winds thus high evapotranspiration leading to reduced residence time of water in the dam. We therefore find the need for: improved management of water dams, re-align dam development with pasture location sites and grazing sites, build capacity of the community in dam management, sensitize the community on proper watering and strengthen traditional institutions as centers for water management. There is need to develop a monitoring system for water sources in the sub-region so as to facilitate timely response as well as offer perspective into range condition management.Further we recommend for a catchment analysis of Karamoja for the total potential discharge so as to increase the development of small, medium to large multiple purpose dams in the sub-region.

Spatio-temporal dynamics of forage and land cover changes in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.

 

Spatio-temporal dynamics of pastoral grazing resources influences the pastoral production system. Obtaining timely and reliable information on the status of these resources will support planning and early response to climatic variability. This study in Karamoja pastoral sub-region of Uganda identified herbaceous and woody forage species in different grazing land cover types, quantified forage in different grazing land covers, analyzed long-term land use/cover change (from 1986 to 2013) and determined the relationship between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and herbaceous biomass. Results showed that the sub-region has over 30 grass species that provide forage. During the wet season, woodlands, grasslands and thickets and shrublands recorded a wet weight of 1,342.5 ± 104.5 kg/ha, 857.5 ± 29.4 kg/ha and 501 ± 43.9 kg/ha, respectively. In the dry season, 542.5 ± 57.6 kg/ha, 273 ± 6.4 kg/ha and 140 ± 9.2 kg/ha were realized in the woodlands, grasslands and thickets and shrublands, respectively. However, in the transitionary season, 276, 512.5 and 529.2 kg/ha were obtained in the woodlands, grasslands and thickets and shrublands accordingly. Similar trends were observed in dry matter biomass in the respective land cover type. Seasonality, land cover type and location accounted for the variations in the observed forage quantities. Analysis of land cover and land use change revealed a tenfold increase in croplands in the last 13 years. The expansion of crop cultivation is attributed to interventions by the Government of Uganda and development partners to promote food security in the sub-region. Heightened bushland encroachment was similarly observed in the last 13 years. The study also found a significant positive relationship between NDVI and herbaceous biomass, indicating that remote sensing offers reliable resource assessment and monitoring options for informing planning and interventions in semi-arid areas.

Trees and Livelihoods in Karamoja, Uganda.

This report presents results of a rapid desk review of academic and grey literature on the evidence relating to trees and livelihoods in Karamoja a region in north eastern Uganda. The review identified the range of problems in the Karamoja sub-region; benefits of trees to people and communities living in Karamoja; the role of trees in resilience building; role of trees in agricultural production, traditional knowledge of trees in Karamoja; threats to trees,drivers of development in Karamoja; tree-based initiatives in the sub-region; and opportunities for action research in Karamoja. Using their experiences in the Karamoja subregion and other similar ecosystems in Africa, the authors provide insights of the contribution of trees to livelihoods in Karamoja.

Proceedings of the 4th international conference on sustainable animal agriculture for developing countries (SAADC2013).

 

SAADC2013 is the fourth in the biennial conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries; the first being held in Kunming, China in 2007 and the second and third in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand in 2009 and 2011 respectively. This series of conferences is designed to provide a platform for the exchange of experience and knowledge among academicians, researchers, graduate students and producers for development of sustainable animal industry in developing countries. A total of 181 Extended Abstracts have been accepted for presentation during the 4-day conference and are published in this proceedings. The Extended Abstracts, submitted by participants from 26 different countries, consist of 2 Keynote addresses, 10 Plenary lectures, 13 Lead papers and 162 scientific presentations. They cover policies and management strategies, nutrition and feeding, physiology, breeding and genetics, production systems, and biotechnology pertaining to the development of a sustainable livestock industry. The SAADC2013 had assembled together a proficient team for the Editorial Board. However, their duties were constrained by the late submissions of many abstracts, hence these will appear ‘as is’ with minimal editing. The accuracy of the contents, including methodologies and results of the Abstracts are the sole responsibility of the authors. I would like to extend my sincere gratitude to the members of the SAADC2013 Editorial Board for their commitment and diligence in coming up with this Proceedings.

The determinants of fuelwood demand: A case of Olio sub-county eastern Uganda

 

This study investigated the determinants of fuelwood demand, estimated the elasticity of the determinants, and determined changes in land use/cover and its effect on biomass dynamics. It also documented fuelwood scarcity coping strategies. Findings indicate that both demographic and socio-economic conditions within the household have a bearing on fuelwood demand and these determinants are positively and negatively elastic. Meanwhile, the biomass stock is declining at a faster rate from its value of 1986 owing to rapid land use/cover change (LUCC) mainly driven by small-scale farming. This has exacerbated fuelwood scarcity. Households have though devised coping strategies including; the use of crop residues, improved stoves and agro-forestry.

The effect of climate variability and change on forage availability and productivity in Uganda’s cattle corridor: A case study of Karamoja sub-region

 

This study seeks to explore the influence climate variability and change has on forage availability and productivity in Karamoja region of North Eastern Uganda. It will determine forage availability and factors influencing its productivity. It will also establish the relationship between forage availability and livestock population dynamics including; state variables, demographic rates, synthetic demographic rates and the global demographic indicators. The study will also project forage availability in the context of a changing climate for the period 2020-2050. Cross-sectional data, remote sensing and GIS as well biomass assessments through clipping will be used in this study. This study will contribute to livestock early warning systems (LEWS) initiatives and help in the design of appropriate interventions in livestock production, sustainable management of natural resources that support livestock production and as well as contribute to rangeland health monitoring.

Cost Benefit Analysis: a review of its past present and the future.

 

This review concerned itself with understanding what cost-benefit analysis is concerned with, how it works, where it has been applied and what potential it does pose for the future. From its humble beginnings in the French infrastructure engineering projects, cost-benefit analysis has gained ground as an instrumental decision guiding tool. It emerges that current government and developmental projects are required to conduct cost benefit analysis (CBA) in countries such as USA. Some development partners have also been observed to peg development assistance to projects that reflect a positive CBA. In East Africa, there is evidence of its usage especially in natural resources assessment such as National Parks, Game Reserves, forests and wetlands. This review has also highlighted the challenges under pinning CBA in general. An understanding that CBA does not provide a fit for all empirical evidence and information is the final conclusion of this review. The reviewer encourages decision makers to attempt to use CBA before making investment decisions.

Miti Magazine-Rainfall trends in the Lake Victoria Basin, Uganda.

 

March, April and May (MAM) rainfall (long rains) compared to all other districts. The MAM period thus remains a major rainfall season for the basin; particularly for farmers. The patterns reflected above provide four key messages: (i) rainfall patterns in the Victoria basin are variably differentiated with two patterns; an increasing and a decreasing trend; (ii) the varied patterns of rainfall around the Victoria basin require strategic adaptation that is case specific but integrated; (iii) an analysis of variability intensity is required across scale and scope to provide spatial and temporal adaptation indices for the basin; (iv) further inquiry into the rather peculiar higher rainfall MAM totals for Wakiso district from a satellite system analysis and modeling ought to be undertaken.

Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa.

 

Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data.
Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF). Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk) constituted a set of responses undertaken in response to perceived climate risk. It is recommended that an integrated early warning system that captures the perceptions and practices of the pastoralists is implemented as this would increase the credibility of climate risk information disseminated. 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Miti Magazine-Rural Households' Fuelwood Demand Determinants In Dryland Areas of Eastern Uganda ‘Mental drought’ afflicts Uganda’s cattle corridor.

 

It is evident that Uganda’s semi-arid region receives annual rainfall that is high enough to allow for stable pastoral and agro-pastoral production all year round. Addressing the drought challenges in the region requires a systematic dismantling of the “mental drought”. This has to be undertaken at different levels, using different skills and pproaches. A change of attitude is required, moving away from the “business as usual’’ way of doing things, to recognising the fact that systematic proactive action is needed to deal with actual and perceived drought events. This however requires transformation at various levels of decision-making, from household to national level. For example, systematic mapping, identification and diagnosis of challenges occurring in the cattle corridor could allow for easing of the cause of the problem, tackle the drought challenge and help dismantle the “mental drought” phenomenon.

Rural Households' Fuelwood Demand Determinants In Dryland Areas of Eastern Uganda.

 

Fuelwood is the primary source of household energy in rural areas of Uganda. Findings show that 98.8% of the households use fuelwood for cooking and preserving food with a per capita consumption of 542.32 kg with a preference for acacia tree species. Further, expenditure on food per week, household size, expenditure on charcoal, price of fuelwood and household income are the key determinants of fuelwood demand while distance covered by the household members to collect fuelwood, age, and sex of household head were not statistically significant (P < 0:05). In terms of elasticity, price of fuelwood, distance covered to collect fuelwood, collection by adult females, and expenditure on charcoal posted negative elasticities while household size and weekly food expenditure posted positive elasticities. Therefore, household characteristics are important determinants of fuelwood demand while the elasticity coefficients in this study are stronger than those reported in other studies elsewhere.

 Landuse/Cover Change Trend in Soroti District Eastern Uganda.

 

This study assessed the extent and trend of landuse/cover change in Soroti District, Uganda. A series of systematically corrected Orthorectified Landsat imageries of 1973, 1986 and 2001 were downloaded from the Landsat website. The images were analysed using unsupervised classification approach and the land-use/cover were validated and/or reconstructed by ground truthing, use of secondary data, and key informants. The study establishes that; small-scale farming was the major landuse type (24.2%) and grasslands were the dominant landcover unit (26.1%) in 1973. Small-scale farming however declined by 5.3% in 1986 due to prevailing insurgence at the time while grasslands gained by 2.9%. In 2001, small-scale farming had increased by 13.6% at the expense of woodlands (-2.3%), Bushlands (-5.5%), Forest stock (-2.2%) and wetlands (-0.44) that experienced declines. This drastic gain in small-scale farming is likely to treat negative environmental effects such as intensity of floods and droughts, soil nutrient and biodiversity loss due habitat conversion. @JASEM.

Piosphere Syndrome and Rangeland Degradation in Karamoja Sub-region, Uganda.

 

Uganda like most African countries is a vast mosaic of diverse and contrasting landscapes. Much of the country is characterized by an equatorial vegetation but with significant dryland areas mostly pronounced in northeastern sub-region of Karamoja. In this sub-region, the pastoral and agro-pastoral population is dependent artificial waterholes. In the locale of these waterholes, the livestock generate areas of altered soils and vegetation known as piospheres. However, since the introduction of these artificial waterholes, limited research has been undertaken to investigate their impact on rangeland degradation in the sub-region. In this study, soil chemical and physical properties were sampled at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, herbaceous and woody species were assessed and a series (1986, 2000, 2013 and 2015) of Landsat imagery were utilized. Standard laboratory procedures were utilized to analyze soil samples while herbaceous and woody species were summarized based on relative abundance. Dark Object Subtraction 1 atmospheric correction method was performed on all the imagery prior to classification. The Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) was used to determine vegetation sensitivity to rangeland degradation. The extent of rangeland degradation from the waterholes was assessed by proximity analysis basing on distance intervals (0.1 km-15 km) from the waterhole. A high soil pH was observed closer to the waterholes, while nitrogen and phosphorus were lower. There was variation in abundance of herbaceous and woody species between the wet and dry seasons with a predominance of perennial hardy herbaceous species closer to the waterholes. Results also revealed that a pronounced inflection point has become established around the piospheres and is expanding outward to 1.5-2 km distance from the piosphere centre; indicating a development of clearer degradation pattern. The piospheric gradient (up to 15 km) has demonstrated pronounced landscape heterogeneity with the existence of potential interaction area between 6.5 and 9 km an area we have called a convergence zone of new higher impact. It is therefore imperative that strategic management of the waterholes is undertaken to stay the inflection zone from further expanding outward. This information generated is relevant to range and water managers in separating the impacts of localized degradation from landscape based rangeland health in Karamoja sub-region.

The Effect of Land use/cover change on Biomass Stock in Dryland Areas of Eastern Uganda. A case study of Olio Sub-county in Soroti District.

 

Drylands occupy 44% of Uganda’s land surface and provide livelihood to a cross-section of both rural and urban folks. However in the face of population pressure, drylands are increasingly in the path of conversion and degradation. This study therefore, performed an assessment of the effect of land use/cover change on biomass stock in olio sub-county from 1973 to 2001. A series of systematically corrected Orthorectified Landsat imageries of 1973, 1986 and 2001 obtained from the Landsat website were used. The images were analysed using unsupervised approach in Integrated Land and Water Information System version 3.3 and validated using field bservations and historic memories of village elders. Findings indicate that land use/cover change is driven by small-scale farming. Between 1973-1986 significant declines were identified among small-scale farming (23.2%), grasslands (8.7%) and large scale-farming (9.9%). Further, declines were also registered between 1986-2001 in Bushland (12.1%), woodlands (13.9%) and wetlands (8.2%) while dramatic gains were registered in small-scale farming by 19.4%. These declines led to losses in the available biomass stock by 2001 within bushlands, wetlands and woodlands loosing 29.1 million tons, 669.1 metric tons and 87.3 million tons respectively. We conclude that small-scale farming by resource poor farmers is rapidly transforming the vegetation landscape. Therefore, there is need for increased use of remote sensing and GIS to quantify change patterns at local scales for essential monitoring and assessment of land use and or/cover change effects and human interference on the landscape. @JASEM.

Dynamics of Land Use/Cover Trends in Kanungu District, South-western Uganda.

 

Like other countries in the Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda is not an exception to the effects of land use/cover changes on the environment. Specifically the study intended to; determine the magnitude and trend of land use/cover changes in Kanungu District for the last 35 years. A series of Landsat TM/ETM ortho-rectified satellite imagery of 1975, 1987 and 1999 were classified using unsupervised classification procedures in ILWIS 3.3 software to determine the magnitude and trend of land use/cover changes. A total of 65 local residents were randomly selected for questionnaire administration with the help of village leaders to examine the underlying drivers of land use/cover change. The results showed that the magnitude of small scale (Non-uniform) farming largely increased by 5% from 1975 to 1999 while areas covered by Tropical high forest relatively decreased by 16% between 1975 and 1987 but slightly increased by 1% in 1999. The areas covered by wetlands comparatively increased by 4% from 1975 to 1987 and by 1999 they slightly decreased by 3%. The woodland areas decreased by 3% from 1975 to 1987 and to some extent also increased by 2% in 1999. Household size, type of crops grown, customary land tenure system, availability of agricultural extension workers, weak environmental laws and policies are significant predictors of land use/cover change in Kanungu District.@ JASEM.

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Comparison of extreme weather events and streamflow from drought indices and a hydrological model in River Malaba, Eastern Uganda.

 

The study examined the applicability of the Combined Drought Index (CDI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and IHACRES (identification of unit hydrographs and component flows from rainfall, vaporation and streamflow data) model in characterizing extreme weather events in relation to streamflow variations of the River Malaba. The results showed that the extreme weather events return period had reduced from 4–10 to 1–3 years over the catchment. The CDI was a better predictor of drought events (2005–2006) than the SPI, which was better for flood events (2006, 1997 and 2008) in the catchment. The performance of the IHACRES model with a Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.89 comparatively corresponded with the results obtained from the SPI and CDI drought indices especially during recorded events of severe drought (2005) and flood (1997). These results coincided with the La-Nina events that were recorded over the catchment and Uganda at large.

Effect of drought early warning system on household food security in Karamoja subregion, Uganda

 

Drought is regarded as a leading cause of food insecurity affecting about 220 million people in sub-Saharan Africa. Drought early warning systems (DEWSs) have the potential to strengthen capacity of communities in managing and reducing drought effects through building preparedness and providing coping strategies. The Karamoja subregion is the only region with a functional DEWS in Uganda. The subregion suffers from effects of recurrent episodes of drought with negative impacts on food security. Despite having DEWS in place, the subregion remains the most food insecure in the country. The extent to which DEWS has contributed to household food security in the subregion remains unclear. This study determined the effect of DEWS on agro-pastoral household food security in the subregion. The study was conducted in Nakapiripirit and Kotido districts of the Karamoja. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 participating and non-participating households in DEWS. The effect of participating in DEWS on food security was analyzed using the generalized linear model. The level of food security and nutrition were measured using the household food insecurity access score and household dietary diversity score (HDDS), respectively.

Agro-pastoral choice of coping strategies and response to drought in the semi-arid areas of Uganda.

 

Drought episodes have been on the increase in the semi- arid areas of Uganda with harmful effects like crop failure, and human and livestock mortality, among others. There are barely any studies that have examined why agro- pastoral communities take specific actions in coping with drought. This study examined the factors influencing the choice of coping strategies to drought and the reasons for response and nonresponse. The study was conducted in the semi-arid Karamoja sub-region of Uganda using a cross-sectional household survey on 305 households. A multinomial logistic model was used to analyze the factors that determine the choice of coping strategy by households against drought events. The results indicate that coping was positively influenced by distance to the nearest water source, access to drought information and training on drought management. Livelihood support, amount of arable land owned and frequency of receiving information from Drought Early Warning Systems (DEWS) had a positive significant effect on response. To enhance response capabilities, there is need to improve livelihoods and frequent dissemination of information on impending drought.

Quality and dissemination of information from a drought early warning system in Karamoja sub-region, Uganda.

 

Drought Early Warning Systems (DEWS) are instrumental in drought mitigation because they provide drought-prone communities with information on how to mitigate and cope with drought. This study assesses the quality of DEWS information in the Karamoja sub-region of Uganda. Data were collected from 173 households that accessed information from DEWS in Kotido and Nakapiripirit districts. A three way interaction model was used to determine the socio-economic factors associated with preference for information channels. It was established that land size and level of education significantly influenced preference for information channels. The study also found that information from DEWS was applicable, relevant, and understandable though not delivered in a timely manner. Slightly more than half (51%) of the respondents accessed information from Parish Chiefs. Although most respondents stated that they preferred radio (69%), it was the least used. The households also used traditional methods like observing the direction of wind and examining animal intestines to predict drought. The study concluded that information from DEWS was of good quality although it was poorly disseminated. There is need to enhance the timeliness of information dissemination if the system is to effectively enhance community preparedness to cope the effects of drought.